From the retina of the visual system, the thalamus receives the input which is then passed on to the brain through the optic nerve. Those signals are then sent to the lateral geniculate nucleus which is then sent to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe. Asides from passing on signals to various regions of the brain, the thalamus also assists in the processing of information. Besides visual processing, the thalamus is also involved in the processing of other information such as auditory, consciousness, and alertness. The medial geniculate nuclei present in the thalamus helps in sending auditory information between the primary auditory cortex and inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Another nucleus called ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus is involved in the sense called touch. It sends information such as touch and bodily position perception to the primary somatosensory cortex of the cerebral cortex. Moreover, the thalamus helps in controlling consciousness and in wakefulness, arousal, and alertness.
Anatomy of Thalamus:
Thalamus is located in the diencephalon region of the brain, which is towards the centre of the brain. It is a paired structure and encompasses grey matter. This brain structure is located above the midbrain or otherwise known as mesencephalon. This helps in connecting nerve fibres to the cerebral cortex in all the ways. Since thalamus is a paired structure, each part of it is connected or is attached to each other though the interthalamic adhesion. Thalamus which consists of gray matter is the because of the presence of cell bodies of neurons. Apart from this there are areas which consists of white matter, due to axons. The white matter structure of the thalamus consists of external and internal medullary laminae. The external medullary lamina covers the lateral surface of the thalamus and the thalamic nuclei are separated into anterior, medial, and lateral groups with the internal medullary laminae.
Nuclei of Thalamus: There are three different group of cells present in the thalamus and they are:, sensory relay nuclei, association nuclei and non-specific nuclei. The sensory information that has been received by the thalamic nucleus are all directed to the proper areas of the cortical region of brain.
Sensory relay nuclei: Ventral posterior nucleus and the lateral and medial geniculate body are the ones included in sensory relay nuclei. The major role of this nucleus includes transporting primary sensation bypassing certain sensory messages to the adjacent areas of the cortical region. This can be exemplified from the functioning of the lateral geniculate body, which collects messages from the optic tract of the brain to the primary visual cortex.
Association nuclei: From certain regions of the cerebral cortex, the input is collected, and then this input is again projected back to some generalized association regions of the cerebral cortex where the activity is regulated.
Non-specific nuclei: The information from the cerebral cortex is received by the intraluminal and midline thalamic nuclei and then information is projected diffusely through these nuclei. The important role of these nuclei is alerting and is also involved in connecting various activities of the brain.
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