Lists of Maps, Boxes, Figures, and Tables xvii
Preface to the Fifth Edition xxi
The Strategic Context: Foreign Policy Strategy
and the Essence of Choice 2
Introduction: Foreign Policy in a Time of Transition 2
The Context of the International System 6
Quasi anarchy 7
System Structure 7
The National Interest: The â€œ4 Psâ€ Framework 8
Dilemmas of Foreign Policy Choice: â€œ4 Psâ€ Complementarity,
Trade-offs, and Dissensus 18
â€œ4 Psâ€ Complementarity: Optimal, but Infrequent 18
â€œ4 Psâ€ Trade-offs: More Frequent, More Problematic 20
â€œ4 Psâ€ Dissensus: Bitter Conflicts 22
I The Context of
U.S. Foreign Policy:
Theory and History 1
The Domestic Context: The Three Branches
and the Process of Choice 27
Introduction: Dispelling the â€œWaterâ€™s Edgeâ€ Myth 27
The President, Congress, and â€œPennsylvania Avenue Diplomacyâ€ 29
Theories of Presidential-Congressional Relations 29
War Powers 32
Treaties and Other International Commitments 34
Appointments of Foreign Policy Officials 37
â€œCommerce with Foreign Nationsâ€ 39
General Powers 40
The Supreme Court as Referee? 43
Executive-Branch Politics 45
Presidents as Foreign Policy Leaders 46
Senior Foreign Policy Advisers and Bureaucratic Politics 48
Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics 49
Trade Policy and the Executive Branch 52
The Domestic Context: Interest Groups,
Media, and Public Opinion 56
Introduction: Societal Actors and the Process of Choice 56
Interest Groups and Their Influence 56
A Typology of Foreign Policy Interest Groups 57
Strategies and Techniques of Influence 62
The Extent of Interest-Group Influence: Analytic and Normative Considerations 64
The Impact of the News Media 66
Role of the Media Historically: Cheerleader or Critic? 67
Modes of Influence 70
Freedom of the Press vs. National Security 72
Public Opinion: What Is It? What Is Its Impact? 76
Ignorant or Sensible? The Nature of Public Opinion about Foreign Policy 76
The Influence of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy 81
Foreign Policy and Presidential Elections 83
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